Prevalent diseases or chronic diseases, also known as “diseases of affluence” are rapidly increasing on a global scale. Chronic diseases although preventable, keep constantly recurring. As defined by WHO “any pathogenic micro-organism that can spread directly or indirectly from one person to another” are infectious diseases or chronic diseases. These diseases may be airborne, water–borne or spread through sexual intercourse, usage of infected syringe and by living in an area where chronic diseases are widespread.
Here is a list of the most prevalent and common diseases in the world:
- Hepatitis B: It is an infectious disease, which is caused by Hepatitis-B virus(HBV) that affects the liver. Today approximately 2 Billion people are affected by HBV, making it the most common and infectious disease in the world. The HBV virus is transferred through exchange of blood or fluid from one person to other. It is generally acquired in places where the spread of HBV is common. In areas where the disease is rare, it may spread through sexual intercourse or by injecting drugs. Symptoms include jaundice, inflammation of the liver, stomach pain and extreme fatigue. To prevent HBV, vaccines have been introduced since 1982, which can be taken just after the birth of the child and two or three times later in adult life cycle.
- Dengue: It is a mosquito borne disease, caused by mosquito of Aedes type through dengue virus. Symptoms include high fever, nausea, vomiting and skin rash. A vaccine for dengue is available in most countries.
- Measles: It is a highly contagious disease caused by the measles virus. Although it has been eliminated in several countries, it is still prevalent in developing countries. Measles is an airborne disease and this disease spreads through sneezing, coughing and even spit of another infected individual. Symptoms are red rashes that start from the face and spreads through the rest of the body. Both vaccinations and oral medication are available to prevent and cure the disease.
- Rotavirus: It is a diarrheal disease mostly occurring in children. It is mostly caused by “Rotavirus A”. Symptoms include mild fever, vomiting, nausea and dehydration. To prevent the disease there is Rotavirus vaccine
- Tuberculosis: Commonly termed as ‘TB’, it is a highly contagious disease that usually attacks the lungs. It is caused by several types of micro-bacteria and tuberculosis germs. It is an airborne disease which, spreads through by coming in contact with an infected person either through their cough, sneeze or spit. This disease kills half of the infected population, if they do not get proper treatment in time. Symptoms includes regular coughing, sometimes coughing up with blood, chest pain, fever, difficulty in breathing, weakness and weight-loss. This disease can be treated with the help of antibiotics. Moreover, there are vaccines available for some forms of tuberculosis.